Theory of Everything and Concepts of Science described in Sri Guru Granth Sahib

From this comparative study it is found that science is coming to the conclusions very close or almost the same as the o...

Theory of Everything and related Theories and Concepts of Science described in Sri Guru Granth Sahib


Scientists at CERN worked hard to find out evidence on God Bosons. Some scientists have even claimed to find their presence from the video-graphs so far received and analysed during the experimentation and declare these to be 'sometimes visible sometimes not'. This hide and seek has made them to consider these as temporary results. Are they considering applying wave-particle duality concept to these God-Bosons. Whatever it may be; the name God boson is a clear indication that they have come close to reconcile with the concept of God called variedly as the fundamental principle, theory of everything, grand design, grand unifying force, or unifying field force by various scientists. The scientists are still struggling to empirically verify the fact of these fundamentals of science though almost all religions have already declared God as the fundamental force. The latest religious scripture Sri Guru Granth Sahib has already described these concepts in 16th century itself though the scientists' thoughts of these concepts much later and the experimentation on these started only in twentieth century! This paper attempts to compare the various concepts, theories and models adopted in science from time to time and their relative treatment in Sri Guru Granth Sahib four centuries ago.

The major scientific research web on origin of universe is created around the Big Bang theory. According to this theory the universe is made of particles which have various forces. The particles have duality known as wave particle duality. The various forms of forces are the Gravity, Electromagnetic Force, the Strong Nuclear Force and the Weak Nuclear Force. The various particles are grouped in the Standard Model. God Boson is one the fundamental of the Standard Model which is presumed to be the binding the particles and the forces and giving weight to the particle. The CERN is searching this very particle. Finding out God Boson is essential to prove the Unified Field Theory and Theory of Everything the subject of hot debate in the science World today.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib however has different approach. It goes beyond Big Bang. It explains even the situation before the universe came into existence. It explains the dark energy and dark matter aspect wherefrom the particles and forces emerged to form matter. It also explains the fundamental of everything i.e., the God, which is the centrality of all energies, forces and particles. It is the Unifying Force; the Grand Design; The Fundamental for the Theory of Everything. This paper discusses these theories of science and compares these with the gospel truths given out in Sri Guru Granth Sahib which will provide guidelines for future research by scientists and thinking processes for the philosophers.

The Big Bang Theory:

Garis Lambatre of Belgium advanced this theory in 1930, supported by Garag Gamov of Russia in 1940 basing on an assumption of big bang having occurred 15 to 20 billion years ago which created the universe instantaneously in the millionth part of a second. The evolution of the world can be compared to a display of fireworks that has just ended; some few red wisps, ashes and smoke. Standing on a cooled cinder, we see the slow fading of the suns, and we try to recall the vanishing brilliance of the origin of the worlds.' Lemaitre. "The explosion from zero volume at zero time of a corpuscle of energy equivalent to the mass and radiation that now constitute the Universe."(2) It means that everything we now see or know about was once compacted into an unimaginably small blip that instantaneously expanded in a huge explosion that created the very space and time it was expanding into. The matter was broken into pieces, which were thrown out with high speed in all directions forming stars and galaxies; which are still moving away from one another.

BigBangPics (111K)
a & b(first two):The pictures represent the Big Bang, which revealed once again that God created the universe from nothingness.
c: Photo from Hubble Space Telescope of the Southern Sky

The Big Bang Model was questioned by many scientists. Sir Fred Hoyle, for example, could countenance neither an uncaused nor a supernaturally caused origin of the universe. With respect to the first alternative, he wrote, "This most peculiar situation is taken by many astronomers to represent the origin of the universe. The universe is supposed to have begun at this particular time. From where did the universe originate? The usual answer, surely an unsatisfactory one, is: from nothing!"1 Equally unsatisfactory in Hoyle's mind was the postulation of a supernatural cause. Noting that some accept happily the universe's absolute beginning, Hoyle complained,

Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Big Bang

Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the supreme scripture of the Sikhs. The Gurus and the saints whose hymns have been recorded in Sri Guru Granth Sahib had developed this sixth sense. From their hymns we find answers to all the questions about universe, left unanswered and undiscovered so far by the science or for that matter by any other human being. With the blessing of the True Lord the hymns were revealed to them which also contained the secrets of the universe. These hymns penned by them were later compiled by Sri Guru Arjan in 1602 in the form of Sri Granth Sahib.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib does not believe in big bang. It says the entire universe was created smoothly and not from big bang.2 It thus negates the theory of big bang. God was the fundamental to the entire creation.3 He created the universe from Sunn.4 Sequence of creation is:

God > Light > Sound > Air > Water > Universe > Nature/Maya > Beings

  • He was in secrecy before universe came into existence5.(Secrecy stage)
  • He first created Himself and gave Himself a Name6. (Self creation stage)
  • He created the universe with one word7. (Energy stage 1).
  • From sound the air, fire, light, water and environment were created8. (Energy Stage 2 ).
  • From the combination of five elements the universe was created9. He created the various zones and universe from secrecy10. (Universe creation stage)
  • In the universe He created nature/maya11. (Nature/Maya stage)
  • From the nature, beings were created12. (Creation of Beings stage)

In between air, water and fire, He established the earth to act as a place of worship for the being.13 He created the bodies of beings in many colours and forms.( SGGS, Japuji, M1, p.6)

The Lord has made air, water, earth and sky - His home; His temple (SGGS:723:8). The air is the dwelling place of the absolute Lord. He does not exhibit any of His qualities directly; all His qualities can be seen through His universe (SGGS:944:13). He manifested in many shapes through air, water and fire (SGGS:930:14).

He remained in utter darkness as He so pleased. (SGGS, M.1, p.1282). Then, He revealed Himself. (SGGS, M 1, pp. 1026, M 3, p.949, 1081,1061). The Lord emerged from the darkness Himself. (SGGS, M 1, pp.463, 1036). Sünya is compared to a primal void where God exists in its full effulgence. The creation appears when God wills out of this sünya phase. Guru Arjan describes the primordial trance of God before the creation process starts as a manifestation of God (SGGS, M.1, p.1081):

With His emergence spread the light around. (10) When in light, the Lord probably felt lonely and thought of creating the universe as a play for Himself. ((SGGS, M 1, p. 1037). The light energy being at the base and the sound energy being the activating force, the creation of the universe was initiated. ((SGGS, M1, pp. 929, 1003, 1061, 1033, 1036,). The entire universe was thus created by the Lord after remaining in utter darkness for ages (36 ages).

The light spread as the Lord emerged from darkness. However this entire darkness did not end with His emergence. Both light and dark remained together and continues to be so. Physically speaking, the light makes us to see things while the dark hides things from us. This energy plays with our lives as the beings are made of energy themselves. We observe only a part of the play; the balance remains unobserved.

According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the universe was created by the God through Word (sabd) and it assimilates in Him through the Word; it goes on getting new shapes till assimilated.14. The God and His creation can be understood by the one who is either greater than the God or has become like Him. It is futile to observe an egg sitting in the egg and finding facts about the originator, origin time and the process and outer dimensions of the egg. The calculations by the scientists about the date and process of origin are not true as all the observations made by the scientists are based on maya of the God and not the Truth. It is impossible to observe the past without sixth sense. The First Guru questions, "What was the time, date, month, season when the universe was created?"15 He puts the question and provides the answer too: "No pandit (worldly knowledgeable Hindu) has known the time otherwise it would have been recorded in ancient Hindu scriptures. No Muslim scholar (Qazi) has yet known this, otherwise it would have been recorded in Quran. Neither any ascetic nor anyone else has known the date, month or season when the universe was created. No living person has lived to tell the tale of the origin and no one has yet seen it. No one can measure the spread of universe".16

"God alone knows when He created the universe",17 he further says. "In this sphere, there are many types of gases (airs), liquids (waters) and fires (energies). There are several worldly gods transforming beings into numerous forms and colors and clad in diverse attires. There are many earths and mountains….. There are numerous rain gods, moons, suns, constellations and countries".18 "There is no limit to the creation".19 "No one can describe the limit of various countries, worlds and universes as there is no end. In every part of light there is a shape of beings"20. "The continents and underworlds are billions; beyond anyone's count."21

According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib the One and the only One God has created the entire universe.22 .The entire universe originated from Him alone.23 He emerged from this darkness shoonya Himself and gave Himself a Name.24 With His emergence spread the Light around25. The Light of the Lord spread everywhere.26 When in light, the Lord probably felt lonely and thought of creating the universe as a play for Himself.27

He created the universe and millions of rivers with one sound of His order.28 All the segments and continents in the universe were created one sound of His order alone.29 The light energy being at the base and the sound energy being the activating force, the creation of universe was initiated.30 He uttered the sound aum to create the universe. This sound is considered to be His Name or Sabd. 31 From the True God came the air and from air came the water. From water He created the universe and in every element of the universe He entered in the form of light.32 He created the universe in many different methods in such a way that everything originates from the God and merges into it.33 He created billions of stars, suns and planets.34 He created billions of countries and earths35 and on them He created water, land and mountains.36 He mixed water, fire and air to create the living beings on earth.37 The entire universe is made of water and water exists everywhere.38 There are billions of universes, skies and Netherlands.39 There are billions of places of worship.40 The word is the place of residence of the God and He stays in it. 41 He creates and cares Himself.42

Creating His own self the God was supremely rejoiced and evaluated Himself… When He so willed, He created the world and without support sustained the firmament…….. By His will, the God has created the creation and watches overall. He founded the continents, solar systems and nether worlds. From the absolute self he became manifest in the universe. No one knows His limit. 43 Dark matter is many more times than the observable universe.

He created all parts of universe, the galaxies and the nether worlds from void. He founded the continents, solar systems and underworlds and from the secret he continued His creation.44 Establishing the nine regions, seven continents, fourteen worlds, three qualities, four ages, and the four sources of creation, the God placed them all in His mansion45. He created millions of nether world and skies.46 The parts of the universe and the netherworld are billions and billions and beyond count. God created the entire world with ease and the light of the God spread in all the three worlds i.e., land, water and sea.47 From void He created moon, sun and the firmament.48 The moon and the sun, were the two lamps which He placed in the sky home.49 The sun merges in the house of the moon (after the day).50 No one knows the expanse of the universe.51 Take millions of tons of paper, unlimited amount of ink and start writing at the speed of wind even then you cannot describe Him52.

Theory of Energy

How does He operate or ensure the functioning of every element of the universe? This is next the question. He Himself is stated to be a form of energy. All energies are concentrated in Him and controlled by Him. He created the entire universe from energy expanded to form various shapes. Scientists have various theories of energy. On July 23, 1847 Von Helmholtz in his paper on the conservation of energy set forth the doctrine that the law of conservation of energy was applicable everywhere in living things as well as in inanimate objects. He considered it as a universal law of nature and a new guiding principle in the study of natural science.53 Nineteenth century Physicists realized that one form of energy can be transformed into another.54 In the twentieth century, man of science came to realize that energy can be transformed into mass and mass into energy. In the special theory of relativity Einstein worked out the relation for the transformation. It has played on all important part in the development of atomic energy for war and peace.55 Energy can neither be created nor can be destroyed. The sum total of energy always remains the same in the universe.56

In Sri Guru Granth Sahib the universe and matter are taken as made of energy by God Himself 57. We know that energy is in continuity. Everything formed out of energy is connected. Energy is said to be a continuity of God too. In spiritual technology atma and parmatma are said to be connected and in continuity. As said earlier God is everywhere and in everything. As one cannot see, feel, hear or touch the God directly, one can do so through His Creation; His nature. To understand Him one has to understand His Creation. Every being is His Creation. You, me and all and everything else is His Creation. Knowing every bit or any bit of His creation can provide one His knowledge. Why to go far then. You can start understanding yourself and you will understand Him. You are made of physical and the subtle. Physical consists of your physical structure. The inner consists of your energy, your mind and your soul. We know that energy is in continuity. Everything formed out of energy is connected.

Energy is said to be a continuity of God too. As said earlier God is everywhere and in everything. As one cannot see, feel, hear or touch the God directly, one can do so through His Creation; His nature. To understand Him one has to understand His Creation. Every being is His Creation. You, me and all and everything else is His Creation. Knowing every bit or any bit of His creation can provide one His knowledge. Why to go far then. You can start realising this yourself and you will understand Him. You are made of physical and the subtle. Physical consists of your physical structure. The inner consists of your energy, your mind and your soul. The soul is said to be in continuity with the God: atma is in continuity with parmatma. Atma though contained in body is part of the limitless, the Parmatma, the God. God is limitless and to know the limitless you can find the boundaries within yourself. If one knows its part; the soul, one can understand the expanse of the God. This revelation comes from within. That is how the great men like Buddha, Mahaveer, Christ, Mohammad or Nanak who had obtained the knowledge of the God and His Universe.

Saint Kabir opined: The entire universe was created from light energy58. God created the energy and set His own Order/system. He ensures His order to be followed by all and watches the functioning of the system. Only those understand His Order/system whom the true guide (God) makes to understand.59 Guru Nanak mentioned: His Light illuminates the ocean and the earth. (M 1, p. 930:16)60 There is no one without light; everywhere His light is prevalent.61 Every being came into the universe only when the energy was infused in to it and this energy was placed by the God Himself. He Himself is the mother and the father who is created the universe and put life into it. This can be understood by the grace of God and one can understand the entire action. He created the fundamental of the universe and the being came to the universe. (SGGS, p.821)62

Wave particle Duality

Wave-Particle duality postulates that all particles in the universe exhibit properties of both wave and particle. This is a fundamental concept of quantum mechanics. Standard interpretations of quantum mechanics explain this paradox as a fundamental property of the Universe, while alternative interpretations explain the duality as an emergent, second-order consequence of various limitations of the observer.63

Ancient philosophers and scientists like Aristotle, Democritus. Rene Descartes, Young, Maxwell, Newton, Robert Hook etc., have been considering particles of the universe as monoatomic. None of them considered the universe particles both as a wave and a particle in diatomic form. The idea of duality became a reality through the works of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Crompton, Niels Bohr and many others and the current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa).64 This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. For macroscopic particles, because of their extremely small wavelengths, wave properties usually cannot be detected. For both large and small wavelengths, both matter and radiation have both particle and wave aspects.... But the wave aspects of their motion become more difficult to observe as their wavelengths become shorter.... For ordinary macroscopic particles the mass is so large that the momentum is always sufficiently large to make the de Broglie wavelength small enough to be beyond the range of experimental detection, and classical mechanics reigns supreme.65

In the formalism of the theory, all the information about a particle is encoded in its wave function, roughly analogous to the amplitude of a wave at each point in space. This function evolves according to a differential equation (generically called the Schrodinger equation), and this equation gives rise to wave-like phenomena such as interference and diffraction. The particle-like behavior is most evident due to phenomena associated with measurement in quantum mechanics. Upon measuring the location of the particle, the wave-function will randomly "collapse", or rather "decohere", to a sharply peaked function at some location, with the likelihood of any particular location equal to the squared amplitude of the wave-function there. The measurement will return a well-defined position, (subject to uncertainty), a property traditionally associated with particles. This phenomenon is described as wave-particle duality

The wave-particle model is consistent with De Broglie's hypothesis and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. De Broglie's formula was confirmed three years later for electrons with the observation of electron diffraction in two independent experiments. De Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929 for his hypothesis and Thomson and Davisson shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937 for their experimental work. Afshar's experiment66 (2007) has demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously observe both wave and particle properties of photons. Since the demonstrations of wave-like properties in photons and electrons, similar experiments have been conducted with neutrons and protons. Among the most famous experiments are those of Estermann and Otto Stern 1929.67 Authors of similar recent experiments with atoms and molecules, described below, claim that these larger particles also act like waves. This was an astounding discovery. Just one of the effects of this wave-particle duality is that photons, though treated as particles, can be calculated to have frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and other properties inherent in wave mechanics.68

Wave-particle duality is exploited in electron microscopy, where the small wavelengths associated with the electron can be used to view objects much smaller than what is visible using visible light. Similarly, neutron diffraction uses neutrons with a wavelength of about 0.1nanometer (nm), the typical spacing of atoms in a solid, to determine the structure of solids.69

According to Einstein it is the 'fundamental element' and according to Vedas and Upanishads it is the fundamental soul or Parmatma. There is no life and death as imagined by human beings. These are mere changes of beings in different forms or shapes. In reality there is nothing like life and death. God can be called an electrifying force. It is fundamental to all materials. The universe, its development, its activity, all units are activated through its activated energy. All activities are because of this fundamental 'Parmatma'.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Supreme Sikh scripture had already held the theory of wave-particle duality in 15th and 16th century and recorded in the hymns of Guru Nanak, Guru Amardass, Guru Ramdass and Guru Arjan. The development of this theory in science and the theory already explained in Sri Guru Granth Sahib are discussed here.

The scientists were able to have vague idea of wave-particle duality in 17the century but were able to experiment in 20th century. Guru Arjan however described in 16th century that all the particles are in the wave forms.70 Referring to the creation of the universe, he said: "Whatever is subtle in waves is also solid in particles."71 In fact the Gurus described the entire God (and His creation) is both subtle waves and particle solid. God have created the universe out of light where he was first in wave form (subtle) and later turned into the particle (solid) form.72 He became manifest from unmanifest. He changed the from subtle (wave) form through the Word into body (solid) forms.7374He remained subtle but expanded himself into solid bodies. He is now prevalent everywhere in the form of both subtle (wave) and solid (particles).75 The entire beings meditate in His remembrance in the form of both particle (manifest) and wave (unmanifest).76

Thus fundamentally He and His universe is a form of energy which keeps on changing forms from Nirgun to Sargun; from waves to particles; subtle to solid; unmanifest to manifest and vice versa. Singularity is in the origin, the energy; but the duality is in the forms.

Theory of visible-Invisible:

The God Boson is being shown as both visible and invisible. This is actually the fundamental of God who is both visible and invisible. According to Einstein it is the 'fundamental element' and according to the sages it is the fundamental soul or Parmatma which is the creator of the universe and in whom all energies are unified. The fundamental principal as stated by Einstein is God who is both nirgun (attribute less) and sargun (consisting of all attributes). God has no worldly attributes but all the attributes of the universe originate from Him. God is both visible and invisible. God is attribute less while considered to be having attributes too. His attributes can be seen in His creation; His nature. He spreads from the base which remains in peaceful attribute less condition in each atom of the universe. He can be seen through His Creation as He is considered to be in every part of His creation, both at Macro and Micro level; from Nebulae to photon level. It is like the sea spread peacefully while various waves keep on originating from it. The universe is also like a wave originated from the sea. The only difference is that it is the fundamental power circuit of life form with neutrons as the base while protons and electrons spread around causing countless power circuits. The waves too are power circuits but these originate from the sea which itself is a power circuit of the fundamental energy. While the fundamental power circuit remains stable, the temporary circuits of waves keep on changing, coming out of sea and merge in it again. This fundamental circuit is permanent; it neither emerges nor vanishes. This is why it is called Saibhang (self originated).

The energies initially concentrated at a point, known as zero point, Shunya or Sunn, which is light in density or is just a vacuum. The energies around it are attracted to this zero point, as we find a cyclone rushing to a vacuum point. Once the energy gets contracted at this zero point, the pressure develops outwards. A circuit is caused whereby the energy is attracted and distracted like a sea-saw.

Fundamentally these elements are both nirgun (attribute less) and sargun (consisting of all attributes). He has no worldly attributes but all the attributes of the universe originate from Him. God is both visible and invisible. God is attribute less while considered to be having attributes too. His attributes can be seen in His creation; His nature. He spreads from the base which remains in peaceful attribute less condition in each atom of the universe. He can be seen through His Creation as He is considered to be in every part of His creation, both at Macro and Micro level; from Nebulae to photon level. It is like the sea spread peacefully while various waves keep on originating from it. The universe is also like a wave originated from the sea. The only difference is that it is the fundamental power circuit of life form with neutrons as the base while protons and electrons spread around causing countless power circuits. The waves too are power circuits but these originate from the sea which itself is a power circuit of the fundamental energy. While the fundamental power circuit remains stable, the temporary circuits of waves keep on changing, coming out of sea and merge in it again. This fundamental circuit is permanent; it neither emerges nor vanishes. This is why it is called Saibhang (self originated).

Theory of Change

Another concept of the universe is that of a continuous change. Everything in this universe is continuously changing77. The change is continuous and positive; it is forward and not backward. Each new day the God is in new form.78 Due to this order of change, every matter in the universe changes continuously; nothing remains the same the very next moment. The child becomes adult and adult old and thereafter changes another form. The nature becomes green in spring while gets withered in autumn. We see trees growing up, becoming green with leaves, having flowers and then fruits; which when ripe fall on the ground or eaten away by birds. Thus the nature too keeps on changing regularly. The God, whose all encompassing attributes, are related to nature; thus are found different every minute. The God's creation is never found in its old form; it becomes new every moment. Thus the God when seen in its sargun form or through its creation is found to be new every moment. The Lord has made the process of change to ensure continuous functionality of His maya. The change occurs with regular contact and separation, of the maya created by Him. He created the maya with one sound and only once. It neither increases nor decreases and this created energy continues to change forms. The changing of forms is in a system and order set by Him. Nothing changes without His order and every one functions as per His orders.

The Standard Model

The scientists however still consider the creation after big bang on the basis of Standard Model. The studies in unified field theory resulted with the study of the forces of particles due to their spin i.e., (a) Electromagnetic Force (b) Strong nuclear force (c) Weak nuclear force and (d) Gravitation force and their comparison. The result of this comparison proved very successful, and led to several Nobel Prizes in Physics. In 1979, the prize was awarded to theorists Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg, who proposed the theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions. In 1984, it went to experimentalists Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer, for the detection of the W and Z particles predicted by the model. The 1976, 1988, 1990 and 1995 Nobel Prizes were given for other experiments that corroborated aspects of the Standard Model, and the 1999 prize went to theorists Gerardus 'tHooft and Martinus Veltman for elucidating the mathematical theory that underlies it..

In the standard model, particles like electrons, muons, neutrinos and quarks make up matter. They interact via the three interactions: electro-magnetic, weak nuclear and strong nuclear. The force carriers are other particles, such as photons and the more recently discovered W and Z bosons and gluons. All four of the known fundamental forces are mediated by fields, which in the Standard Model of particle physics result from exchange of gauge bosons. The Standard Model gave a recipe to calculate the rates at which interactions take place that can measure the same rates in an accelerator or other laboratory, and compare with the theory. The Standard Model gives us a recipe to calculate the rates at which interactions take place. The layout of the Standard Model is given below:

StandardModel (65K)

Despite all this, it is now believed that the Standard Model is approximate and incomplete. It does not incorporate the fourth and perhaps best-known force in nature: gravity. This is believed to be mediated by the exchange of gravitons, and due to problems of mathematical consistency, no one has ever been able to incorporate gravity into the Standard Model. So it is surely incomplete. Another problem with this model is that one has to assume the existence of distinct forces and their carriers. Einstein hoped that there would be a "unified'' theory in which all known forces would emerge out of a single one in some way. Electricity and magnetism used to be thought of as two forces, but now we know they are different aspects of the same (electro-magnetic) force. Could the same type of unification hold for the four forces that are today viewed as distinct? Most important link however remains in detecting the God Boson for which the experiments are in progress in CERN.

The Higgs boson is a subatomic particle is called God particle because the discovery would prove that there us an invisible energy field that fills the vacuum through the observable universe which is essential for our living. Bosons are particles associated with the four fundamental forces of nature, rather than with the constituents of atoms. Electromagnetism is one of these fundamental forces. Its associated boson is the photon. Another fundamental force, which governs radioactive decay, is the so-called weak force. It has two bosons associated with it.79

Just as the electromagnetic field has its photon, calculations suggested that the electroweak force had two bosons associated with it. The calculations also suggested that like the photon, this new duo of particles should have no mass. According to theory, the Higgs field switched on a trillionth of a second after the big bang blasted the universe into existence. Before this moment, all of the particles in the cosmos weighed nothing at all and zipped around chaotically at the speed of light. When the Higgs field switched on, some particles began to feel a "drag" as they moved around, as though caught in cosmic glue. By clinging to the particles, the field gave them mass, making them move around more slowly. This was a crucial moment in the formation of the universe, because it allowed particles to come together and form all the atoms and molecules around today. But the Higgs field is selective. Particles of light, or photons, move through the Higgs field as if it wasn't there. Because the field does not cling to them, they remain weightless and destined to move around at the speed of light forever. Other particles, like quarks and electrons - the smallest constituents of atoms - get caught in the field and gain mass in the process. The field has enormous implications. Without it, the smallest building blocks of matter, from which all else is made, would forever rush around at the speed of light. They would never come together to make stars, planets, or life as we know it. The field accounts for only one or two percent of the mass of more complex things like atoms, molecules and everyday objects, from your mobile phone to your pet llama. The vast majority of mass comes from the energy needed to hold quarks together inside atoms.

Experiments at CERN have shown that once formed the God Boson decays almost instantaneously into other subatomic particles that physicists can spot at the collider. It becomes visible sometime but against become invisible according to the scientists. Thus it also depicts the subtle and solid nature of the universe. According to Sikh scripture the universe is both subtle (wave) and solid (particle). This gives its dual nature. This situation is rightly confirmed by God Boson.

Theory of Everything

The scientists believe that there are four fundamental forces of which all elements are made of. These are electromagnetism, gravity, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force. A Theory of Everything would unify all the fundamental interaction of nature: graviton, strong interaction, weak interaction, and electromagnetism. Because the weak interaction can transform elementary particle from one kind into another, the TOE should also yield a deep understanding of the various different kinds of possible particles. The usual assumed path of theories is given in the following graph, where each unification step leads one level up:

Theory (55K)

Theory of everything (TOE) is being considered as the fundamental law. It considers all other theories that apply within the universe are a consequence of the TOE. This encompasses the theories of Grand unification, unifying force; the standard model, the theory of wave particle duality and the theory of energy. A "theory of everything" is closely related to unified field theory, but differs by not requiring the basis of nature to be fields, and also attempts to explain all physical constants of nature. According to the current understanding of physics, forces are not transmitted directly between objects, but instead are described by intermediary entities called fields. Specifically the four interactions to be unified are:

  • Strong Interaction: the interaction responsible for holding quarks together to form neutrons and protons, and holding neutrons and protons together to form nuclei. The exchange particle that mediates this force is the gluon.
  • Electromagnetic interaction: the familiar interaction that acts on electrically charged particles. The photon is the exchange particle for this force.
  • Weak interaction: a repulsive short-range interaction responsible for some forms of radio-activity that acts on electrons, neutrinos, and quarks. It is governed by the W and Z bosons.
  • Gravitational interaction a long-range attractive interaction that acts on all particles. The postulated exchange particle has been named the graviton.

Unified Theory

Unified theory (unified field theory), allows all fundamental forces and elementary particles to be written in terms of a single field. The term coined by Einstein is an attempt to unify the general theory of relativity with electromagnetism, hoping to recover an approximation for quantum theory. One can easily extend this system to include the weak and strong nuclear forces to get the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac System. Einstein was among the earliest to propose that such a unified field theory must exist, and he struggled -- without success -- for most of his later life to find the right theory.

SGGS on Theory of Everything and Unified Theory

Answer to both these theories is available in Sri Guru Granth Sahib according to which everything originated from the God.80 Only the One God has created the entire universe.81 He became many from one and 82 as He spread throughout the universe83 from zero and has remained in the entire universe.84

For countless days, He remained invisible. For countless days, He remained absorbed in Sünya For countless days, there was utter darkness, and Then the Creator revealed Himself. 85

The entire matter is created by Him and He Himself has set a system to run and control the universe.86 To say it straight the entire universe is within the God's periphery and He alone is settled in everyone87 and controls the universe through His Order.88 He is the only element and the fundamental element.89

All the above quotations from Sri Guru Granth Sahib clearly bring out that the One and Only One God is fundamental to the universe. He is the unifying force, controller, the maker of Grand design and the Theory of Everything in the universe.

String Theory

String theory proclaims, for instance, that the observed particle properties-that is, the different masses and other properties of both the fundamental particles and the force particles associated with the four forces of nature (the strong and weak nuclear forces, electromagnetism, and gravity)-are a reflection of the various ways in which a string can vibrate. Just as the strings on a violin or on a piano have resonant frequencies at which they prefer to vibrate-patterns that our ears sense as various musical notes and their higher harmonics-the same holds true for the loops of string theory. But rather than producing musical notes, each of the preferred mass and force charges are determined by the string's oscillatory pattern. The electron is a string vibrating one way, the up-quark is a string vibrating another way, and so on. The way a string-theory string vibrates may confer the properties of various fundamental particles, just as the way a violin's string vibrates confers the resonant frequencies we recognize as different musical notes.

String theory is currently the most promising example of a candidate unified theory in science. We are not yet sure that it correctly describes nature, but it broadly describes a world similar to ours, and is endowed with beauty and consistency to an astonishing degree. In this theory, instead of many types of elementary point-like particles, we postulate that in nature there is a single variety of string-like object. The string is not "made up of anything'', rather, it is basic and other things are made of it. As with musical strings, this basic string can vibrate, and each vibrational mode can be viewed as a point-like elementary particle, just as the modes of a musical string are perceived as distinct notes. Thus string theory certainly is a model of elementary particles. Most of the mathematical equations describing strings are however inconsistent barring a few. Researchers studying the equations of string theory soon discovered a wealth of surprises. First of all, among the particles arising as vibrations of the string, we find some which are very similar to electrons, muons, neutrinos and quarks -- the known matter particles. There are others similar to photons, W and Z bosons and gluons -- the known force carriers. And there is one particle similar to the graviton, the elusive fourth force carrier. We can work out (not postulate) what are the types of interaction between these particles. At low energies the interactions are precisely of the type appearing in the Standard Model. We also get the gravitational interaction that Einstein originally discovered. So string theory predicts, roughly speaking, the right types of particles and the right types of interactions among them. The famous mathematical inconsistency -- which for decades made it impossible to incorporate quantum gravity in a theory along with the other interactions -- is conspicuous by its absence in string theory. It is almost as if gravity needs strings in order to exist!

Sri Guru Granth Sahib and String Theory

The Fifth Master Guru Arjan explained the theory in Sri Guru Granth Sahib by giving the example of rosary. The beads (beings) are strung upon the one thread (the God). By means of many, various, diverse knots, (parts of body) they are tied and kept separate on the string (soul). The beads of the rosary (beings of the universe) are lovingly chanted upon in many ways. When the thread is pulled out, the beads come together in one place (God's abode).90

Relationship of Science and Religion

It is important to describe the relationship between religion and science, the variance, the cause of the variance and the ground of reconciliation. Idea germination, becoming a thought process, a concept, a model, a theory, an experiment, a design and a manufacturing process before it comes into use has been described in the diagramme below:

DevelopmentOfIdea (109K)

Knowledge (Vidya) is of two kinds: Supreme Truth, the permanent truth and the physical truth; the temporary truth. Knowledge of the Supreme God; the Creator is paravidya and knowledge of the Creation; the physical world is aparavidya. The visionary considers that the Creator of the entire universe is God. Knowledge of God is also known as Brahma Vidya and comes in the domain of paravidya. Scientifically speaking, it is the science of God. To acquire the complete knowledge one has to know about the God and His Creation. A study of the physical forces and the physical laws, and an understanding of the mental forces and the mental laws are not sufficient to make us perfect. We should have a thorough knowledge and realization of the substratum that lies hidden behind these names and forms and all physical and mental phenomena. Then only will we become perfect masters or full-blown adepts of parvidya i.e., the knowledge of the universe. The visionaries are linked to permanent truths, facts and fundamental principles and deal in paravidya. Visionaries are considered and so accepted as the chief architects in finding out the truth and facts generally stated as gospel truth.

These visionaries; the saints and seers get inner, divine realisation. They clearly see with their inner eye the subtle rudiments of matter. They identify themselves with the Supreme Being, the Lord of the nature; the matter. They get control over the five elements. They clearly understand the whole mystery of creation through direct intuitional knowledge. Through their deep inner meditation (soul searching) they are able to link to the grand soul and link direct to the source of Truth. The mind of such great men is subtle and pure. It is free from worldly desires and passions, from selfishness, lust and hatred. It is free from outgoing tendencies. It is fit for divine contemplation. It is properly disciplined in a variety of ways through rigorous austerity and self-restraint. They detach their minds from outer attachments and undergo a discipline, a rare discipline-through the practice of tranquility of mind, control of the senses, restraints, internal and external purification, etc., which is not yet being given in the universities. These great men go directly to the cause or the source. They dive deep into the source and bring forth the pearl of knowledge of the Self. They perceive as they actually are in their very essential nature. They have direct intuition and perception of the Truth through super conscious state and come to the effect-the manifested universe. These are direct revelations. Therefore, their utterances are infallible. They are the gospel truths. They are beyond questioning, beyond the least shadow of doubt. This is how the completely unified knowledge is achieved.

The philosophers, scientists and engineers work in the field of aparvidya. They see and observe things only as they appear to be to their sense-perception. They have to experience or experiment these. The philosophers experience these while the scientists experiment. A scientist deals with this visible creation and the visible form of energy. He infers, investigates and draws conclusions from his observations of the only small part which he can observe. God's Nature is limitless but he works within limits. He understands Nature but he knows nothing of the origin or destiny of Nature. Scientist researches into this area but has succeeded into an iota of it; as this visible energy too is too much for him to observe.

The philosophers form concepts and are the link between visionaries and the scientists. The scientists form theories for the facts and the concepts, prepare models and do experiments for their applications and lay down principles after empirical verifications. The engineers prepare designs and manufacture while the technologists actually apply the technology for the ultimate use of society. There is however no permanent dividing line between them since a few philosophers, scientist and engineers are found to be visionaries. They easily reach at the same result as that of visionaries. However, this is rarest of the rare. Example can be given of Einstein who conceptualized the theory variedly known as the fundamental principle, the theory of everything, the grand design, the grand unifying force or the unifying field.


Sri Guru Granth Sahib is a repertoire of the recorded revelations of the Gurus and saints which can be taken as gospel truth for present conduct and future guidance. From the comparative study above it is found that science is coming to the conclusions very close or almost the same as the ones which the Gurus and saints have already described in the scripture. The science has lot to take from it for future guidance.



1 Ibid,.html#text18#text18
2 Sasai sabh jag sahjupaaia. (ramkli, M.1, p. 930:3) Sahje aava sahje java (Maru, M.5, p.1002:8)
3 Eks te sabh opt hoee. SGGS, p.22
4 Sunhon upjee sunn samaanee. SGGS, M.1, p.1037:18
5Arbad narbad dhundhukaraa…..ta ka ant(u) n jaanai koi (SGGS, p. 1035-1036)
Brahmand pataal arambhe gupt-hu pragtee aaidaa (SGGS, p.1036)
6Aapai aap(i) upai vigsai aapai keemt(i) paida (SGGS, p. 1036)
Aapinai aap(u) saajio aapeenai rachio nao (SGGS< p.463)
7 Keeta pasao eko kavao (SGGS, Paudi 17)
8 Panch tat(u) sunnhon parkaasa (SGGS, p.`1088)
9Pavan paanee agnee pataal. Tis vich dhartee thaap(i) rakhee dharmsaal (SGGS, p. 34)
10Khand brahmand pataal arambhe gupt-hu pragtee aaidaa (SGGS, p.1036)
11 Dooee kudrart saajiai kar(i) aasan dithho chao (SGGS, p.463)
12 Tis vich jia jugt(i) ke rang. Tin ke naam anek anant (SGGS, Japuji, p.7)
Rangee range bhaatee kar(i) kar(i) jinsee maya jin upaaee. (SGGS, Japuji, Paudi 27, p.6)
13 SGGS, M 1, Japuji, Paudi 38.
14 Utpat(i) parlau sabde hovai. Sabde hi fir opt(i) hovai. (SGGS:3:117-8)
15 Kaee kot(i) keene bah(u) bhat(i). prabh te hoi prabh mah(i) smat(i) (SGGS:5:276-13)
16 Kavan(u) su vela vakhat(u) kavan thit (i) kavan(u) var(u)…….thit(i) vaar(u) na jogi janai rut(i) mah(u) na koi, (SGGS Japuji Step 21, 1:4:16)
17 Ja karta sirthee kau sajai, aapai jaane soee. (SGGS, Japuji, 1:4:19)
18 Kete pavan paani vaisantar, kete kaan mahes. Kete barme gharat(i) ghariah(i) roop rang ke
ves. Ketia karm bhoomi mer kete kete dhu updes. Kete ind chand soor kete, kete mandal des.
(SGGS Japuji step 35, 1:7:15)
19 Ant(u) na japai keeta aakar(u). Ant(u) na japai paravaar(u). Ant kaarn(i) kete billai. Ta ka ant na
pae jah(i ). Ih(u) ant na janai koe. Bahuta kaheeai bahuta hoe. (SGGS Japuji, step 24, 1:5:8)
20 Tithai khand mandal varbhand. Je ko kathai ta ant na ant. Tithai lo lo aakaar. (SGGS, Japuji, step 37, 1:8:6)
21 Khand pataal asankh mai ganat na hoee. (SGGS:1283)
22 Eks te sabh opt hoyee. (SGGS:223) Eko karta jin(i) jag(u) keeya. (SGGS:1188), Sabna jeeya
ka ik(u) data.(SGGS:2).
23 Tis prabh te saglee utpat(i) (SGGS:294-9)
24Aaapai aap upai niraala SGGS P.436 aapine aap sajio, aapeene rachio nao. (SGGS:436) gupth(u) pragtee
aaida (SGGS:1036)
25 Nirankar aakaar kar(i) jyot(i) saroop anoop dikhaia. Vaar Bhai Gurdas Vaar 12
26 Tis ki jyot(i) tribhavan saare. (SGGS:1037). Toon ghat ghat antr(i) sarb nirantar(i) ji har(i) eks
purkh(u) smana (SGGS:Rahiras(u) 4:11:1, 348:4, 448:5)
27 Ja tis(u) bhana ta jagt(u) upaaia (SGGS:1036. Aapai keeaa khel tmasa. (SGGS:1032)
28Keeta psao eko kavao.Tis te hoe lakh d . (SGGS:1:3-16)
29khand deep sabh(i) loa. ek kavave te sab hoa. (SGGS:1033 , M 5, 1003-18)
30 Keeta psao eko kavao (SGGS, Japuji step 16, M1:3). Ek kavave te sab hoa. (SGGS:1033)
31 Ikomkar, Mool Mantra, p.1. Aapine aap sajio aapine rachio nao SGGS.p 436. Onkar(i) sabh srist(i)
upaaee. Sabh khel tmasa teri vadiaee. (SGGS:1061). Ongkar(i) utpaatee. keeaa dins sabh raatee.
P.1003 Onkaar(i) brahma utpat(i) Ongkaar(i) keea jin(i) chit(i). Ongkar(i) sail jug bhae.
Ongkaar(i) bed nirmae. Onm akhar sunhu saar(u). Onm akhar tribhavan saar(u) (SGGS:.929)
32 Saachay tay pavnaa bha-i-aa pavnai tay jal ho-ay. Jal tay taribhavan saaji-aa ghat ghat jot samo-ay.
(SGGS:1:19:18). Jal hee tay sabh oopjai bin jal pi-aas na jaa-ay. (SGGS:3:1420-1)
33 ka-ee kot keenay baho bhaat. parabh tay ho-ay parabh maahi samaat. (SGGS:5:276-13)
34 ka-ee kot sasee-ar soor nakh-yatar. (SGGS:5:275-19) anik soor sasee-ar nakhi-aat. (SGGS:5:1236-2)
35 ka-ee kot days bhoo mandal. (SGGS m 5,275-19) ka-ee kot khaanee ar khand.(SGGS:276)
36 prabh(i) jal thal gir(i) kie pahar (SGGS, Kabeer:1194-9)
37 jal(u) tang agnee pavnai trai mil jagt(u) upaia (SGGS:1:1345-16)
38 Nanak ih(u) jagt(u) sabh(u) jal(u) hai jal hee te sabh koi (SGGS:5:1283-6)
39 Ka-ee kot akaas barahmand. (SGGS:5:276-11), Anik aakas anik pataal (SGGS:5:1236-3), Ka-ee jugat
keeno bisthaar. ka-ee baar pasri-o paasaar. (SGGS:276)
40 Kot(i) brahmand ja ke dharamsaal (SGGS:5:1156-10)
41 Ih(u) jag(u) sachai kee hai kothhdi sachai ka vich(i) vaas(u) SGGS:2:463-13)
42 aap(i) upae tai aapai vekhai (SGGS:3:129-3).
43 Arbad narbad dhundhukaara ……taaka ant(u) n jaanai koi. (Maru, M.1. pp. 1035-1036)
44 Khand brahmand pataal(u) arambhe gupth(u) pragtee aaida (Maru, M1. p.1036)
45 Nau sat chaudah teen(i) chaar(i)kar9i) mahl(i) chaar(I) bahalia (maru, M`1, p.1190)
46 Pataala pataal lakh aakgaas agaas (Japuji, Paudi 22, p. 5 )
47 Sasai sabh jag(u) sahj(i) upaia teen(i) bhavan ik jotee (SGGS, M 1, p. 930)
48 Sunnhon chnad soorj(u) gainaarai (SGGS, M 1, p. 1037)
49 Chand9u) soorj(u) dui Deepak(u) raakhe (SGGS, M 1, p. 1033)
50 Sas(i) ghar(i) soor(i) samaida (SGGS, M 1, p.1033)
51 Koi n jaanai tera keta kevad cheera (SGGS, M1, p. 9)
52 Nanak kaagad lakh manha pad(i) pad(i) keechai bhau. Masoo tot(i) n aavai lekhn(i) paun chalau. Bhi teree keemat(i) n pavai hau kevad aakhaa nau. (SGGS, M 1 , p.15)
53 The Book of Popular Science, Vol. 6, new York ,p.252
54 Ibid, Vol 6, p. 252
55 Ibid, p.217
56 Ibid p.216 and Jo deenai so ekah(i) baar (SGGS, Gaudi M. 5, p. 258:18, Jo paia so eka baar SGGS,
57 Jot(i) saroopee tat anoop (Gaudi, Kabir, p. 344:1) Jot(i) saroopi sabh jag(u) (Maru M.5, p. 1082:3)
58 Ek noor te sabh(u) jag upjia (Kabir, p. 1349:19)
59 Siv sakt(i) aap(i) upai kai karta aapai humum(u) vartae. Hukum(u) vartae aap(i) vekhai gurumukh(i) kisai bujhai. (p. 920)
60 Ooram dhooram jot(i) ujaala. Teen bhavan mah(i) gur gopaala.
61 N koee soor(u) n koee heena sabh pragtee jot(i) tumaaree. (SGGS, p. 917)
62 Ey sareera meria har(i) tum mah(i) jot(i) rakhee ta tu jag mah(i) aaia. Har(i) jot(i) rakhee tudh(u) vich(i) ta tu jag mah(i) aaia. Har(i) aapai maata aape pita jin(i) jeeo upai jagt(u) dhiaia. Gur parsaadi bujhia ta chalat hoa nadree aaia. Kahai Nanak(u) srist(i) ka mool rachia jot(i) raakhee ta tu jag mah(i) aaia. (SGSS, p. 821)
63 Wikipedia Dictionary; Wave Particle Duality
64 Walter Greiner (2001). Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction. Springer. ISBN 3540674586
65 R. Eisberg and R. Resnick (1985). Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59-60. ISBN 047187373X.
66 Afshar S.S. et al: Paradox in Wave Particle Duality. Found. Phys. 37, 295 (2007) arXiv:quant-ph/0702188
67 Estermann, I.; Stern O. (1930). "Beugung von Molekularstrahlen". Zeitschrift für Physik 61 (1-2): 95-125. ? Bibcode 1930ZPhy...61...95E. doi:10.1007/BF01340293.
69 Donald H Menzel, "Fundamental formulas of Physics", volume 1, page 153; Gives the de Broglie wavelengths for composite particles such as protons and neutrons.
70 Sookham mah(i) janai asthool (u) (SGGS, M 5, p. 274, line 15)
71 Nanak so sookham(u) soi asthool(u) (SGGS, M.5, p. 281, line 17)
72 Toon sookham(u) hoa asthoolee. (SGGS, M.5, p. 102, line 15)
73 Sookahm moort(i) naam(u) niranjan kaya ka aakaar(u) (SGGS, M.1,p.466:1)
74 Aapai sookham bhaaleeai aapai paasaar(u). (SGGS, M.4, p.556:17)
75 Rav(i) rahia sarbat naaee sookhmo asthool (SGGS, M.5, p.987:17)
76 Simrh(i) thool sookham sabh(i) janta. (SGGS, M.5, p. 1079:5)
77 Jo deesai so chalsi (SGGS: 5:268:13), kis nal(i) keechai dosti sab jag chalanhaar (SGGS: 1:468:7)
78 Sahib mera neet nawan. (SGGS:1:660:5)
80 Eks te sabh opt hoee. SGGS, p.22
81 Eko karta jin jag(u) keea.M.1, p.1188:13
82 Ek anek hoi rahio: Maru, Kabir, p. 1104:2, Eks te hoio anant; M.1, p.131:14.
83 Eko ek rahia sabh thhaaee: p. M.5, 1080:15:Eko ek vartai sabh loee; M3, p.1044:18.
84 Sabh(i) mah(i) ek(u) niranjan(u) soee. SGGS, p. 223)
85 SGGS, M. 5, p. 1081
86 Iksai dee samagree iksai dee hai reet. (SGGS, M.5, p44:20
87 Ek mah(i) sarb sarb mah(i) eka. (SGGS, mn1, p, 907:9)
88 Eko hokum(u) vartai sabh(u) loee. (SGGS, p.223)
89 Aapai tant(u) param tant(u) sabh(u) : M. 5, p.553:16
90 Eko soot(i) proe manie. Gaathhee bhin(i) bhin(i) bhin(i) tanie. Firtee maala bahu bidh(i) bhai. Khinchia soot(u) t aaee tha(i). (SGGS, M.5, p.886)


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