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NANAK THE INDIAN MYSTIC POET-PHILOSOPHER-SINGER-SAINT

His was perhaps the only religion that was devoid of dogmas and doctrines.

NANAK THE INDIAN MYSTIC POET-PHILOSOPHER-SINGER-SAINT

BY

DR. K.T.LALVANI, PH.D. (BONN)


INTRODUCTION:

The most important center of spiritual regeneration in Asia has always been India.  It was here that Buddhism, in one form or another, came to influence profoundly the culture of virtually the whole of eastern Asia, although in India itself the most popular religion continued to be Hinduism, in which the multiplicity of schools and cults is even more evident.

Over five hundred years ago, in 1469 AD about 2,000 years after Buddha, India produced yet another renowned mystic, Nanak, whose theories and teachings, as yet virtually unknown in the West, were even more convincing, practical and universal.  His spiritual science is suitable for all mankinds, under any and all conditions of modern life.

Both Nanak and Buddha, in common with the Hindus, believed that rebirth continue until an individual succeeds in bringing the series of lives to an end.  Not death but re-birth is the supreme ordeal for human beings.  To circumvent re-birth ought therefore to be the ultimate goal of human endeavor.  Nanak, however, unlike Buddha and the Hindu schools of thought, did not consider such a goal extremely difficult have attain since, according to him, sacrifices and asceticism and rituals were absolutely purposeless and unnecessary.  Nanak was the first mystic in India, who proclaimed,

Salvation is not incompatible with laughing eating, playing and dressing well.

He therefore lifted all such bindings and sanctions from his religion, composed of service, humility, meditation and truthful living.

The Bhagvad Gita, which is the greatest testament in the Indian tradition, is more concerned with reliance of God than going beyond Him to a transcendental state in which all distinctions are lost, where according to Nanak there is no difference between the individual blessed soul and the Supreme Soul.

 The author’s object in writing this book is to select the more logical religious theories from the vast Indian heritage and not affirm dogmas.  Should any paragraph appear to be dogmatic, it would be due to an attempt to compress a great deal of thought in to a little space.

BIRTH OF NANAK:

Nanak was born in the year 1469 A. D., in a village 40 miles from Lahore in northwest India and lived for 70 years.  He was born of Hindu parentage in Kshatriya Caste.  Various miracles have been attributed to Nanak, one of them being, that the sky was illuminated with dazzling light during the night of Nanak’s birth.  In the author’s view, greatness of Nanak does not depend upon the miracles that surrounded him in the childhood, but on his Exalted and pure life that he led and the true gospel that he propounded as a humble religious teacher.

Nanak came at critical period in India’s history.  India was slipping fast into the hands of the Mogul invaders after the earlier Islamic invasions from Central Asia and the Middle East.  Hindu society dominated by the Brahmins was rife with caste diversification and rituals, while the ruling Muslim community, diverting from the essence of religion, practiced fanaticism and tyranny, imposing their Islamic faith on others.

In one of his hymns Nanak has described India’s state in the following words:  “Kings are butcher: cruelty is their weapon.  The sense of duty has taken wings and vanished.  Falsehood is over the land as a veil of darkness, the darkness of the darkest night”.

Nanak made great contribution towards brining about unity and harmony between Hinduism and Islam by reminding them that the ultimate goal of both is one and same.  Nanak had no guru, teacher or mentor to initiate him into the metaphysical and spiritual discipline.  His philosophic thought was intuitive and his spiritual insights were self-attained.

 HUMILITY:

Nanak, whose religious philosophy and teachings have remained unsurpassed in India mysticism, was himself an absolute picture of humility and spoke of himself as “a servant of the Beloved One.”  In the Holy Guru Granth he has repeatedly emphasized the importance of humility.  Humility was the way of life for Guru Nanak and his subsequent Gurus.

Following are few verses from Guru Nanak’s numerous hymns on humility.

 

“I am not pious or learned:

Foolish and stupid I was born.

As the ocean is full of water,

So I am full of imperfection.

Be Thou gracious, O Beloved One!

I seek the dust

Under the feet of a devotee,

Who repeats the Divine Name?

And inspires to do the same.”

 

Unlike most other religions, Nanak’s religion of simplicity makes no claim of any person, as God or Son of God or the chosen Prophet.  Instead as seen in the above hymn, Nanak humbles himself down to the status of ‘slave of the saints’.

To serve the people is to serve God.  This was Nanak’s Doctrine that made love and labor the common heritage of man.  Religion is inspired by love.  The beloved is within the people as the soul and hence the service of the people is the service of God.

Guru Nanak says:  “This body is the field, the mind the phoughman, modesty the irrigating channel, contentment the leveler.  Pulverize the crust of pride into true humility, sow the seed of love – and it will flourish”.

Nanak introduced practice of ‘Langar’ (free kitchen) where high and low, rich and poor would eat and serve together.  He put great emphasis on practice of charity, making it an essential part of his faith.  He persuaded the rich to share a part of their wealth, earnings and possessions with the poor.  In one of his hymns he compares the importance of Charity with that of Worship of God, adding, “where there is charity there is God himself”.

To Nanak, service of mankind was one of the fundamental virtues.  According to him, ‘it is through service that love is realized.  Because through service we develop humility and throughout humility we eliminate self-centeredness and ego.  After purging oneself of ego and pride, true love is realized.  It is this divine love which we identify as God and movement towards realization of such love can be interpreted as true religion.

CASTE AND EQUALITY:

Guru Nanak born of Hindu parentage of high (Kshatriya) caste was strongly opposed to caste system, which was deeply entrenched in Hindu society and religion.  I would refer to one of the Vedic creation hymns which mentions the Brahmin superior caste, as coming from God’s head, the warrior-caste from His arms, the farmer-caste, coming from His thighs and a menial, from His feet.[1][1]

Even in the Bhagwad Gita, Krishna’s first words to the desperate Arjuna refer the reader to the caste system.  Arjuna is urged not to yield to an ignoble unmanliness which is unworthy of a warrior[2][2] A few verses later, this admonition is amplified:  “For the warrior ‘caste’ there exists no greater good than a war enjoyed by duty”.  Whatever may have been the origin of the caste system it has come to have strong religious sanctions behind it.  That all souls originated from the same Source was Nanak’s strongest logic against the caste system, which had been prevailing in India.  Nanak’s straightforward teachings of Humility, Service and truthful living and meditation eventually became known as Sikhism.

“The fatherhood of God and the brother hood of man” are one of the main themes of Guru Nanak’s message.

 

You are my Mother and Father

We are your children,

You have favored us with our being and body

No one knows the limits of your glory.

In Your grace lie our many comforts. [3][3]

 

It is difficult to believe that a God, who is both loving and powerful, would make any discrimination among his people.  Such discriminations are made by man to serve his own selfish purposes.

Guru Nanak restored woman to her rightful place in Indian society and regarded her as man’s companion on the spiritual plane.  Why call her low that gives birth to kings and prophets like Krishna, Moses, Christ, Mohammed, Buddha and others.

According to Nanak the grace of God may come to the scholar or the unlettered, high or low, the rich or poor.  It does not depend on caste, knowledge, wisdom or penance.  Those who seek it through love, service and humility attain the goal of life.

 

“In Your mercy lies my peace:

Nanak always prays for Your grace.”

 

Nanak who strove for religious tolerance and universal brotherhood sums up his views in the following hymn,

 

No one is my enemy

No one is a foreigner

With all I am at peace,

God within us renders us,

Incapable of hate and prejudice.

 

Without dedication and love, man is like an empty shell that crumbles into dust.  Love transforms man’s self-centered outlook to one of self-sacrifice.

 

He who has not known love,

Nor the beatitude of the Beloved,

Is like a guest visiting an empty house;

He departs disappointed as he came.

 

SOUL:

 

“As fragrance dwells in a flower,

And reflection in a mirror;

So does God dwell in every soul”.

 Nanak taught that the soul is quite distinct from the mind and the gross matter of the physical body.  When a person dies, the body reaches its destination, becoming dust with dust of the physical universe.  The soul*

Has a different goal.  It does not die along with the physical body but loses its present personality and depending on the individual’s Karma (good or bad future resulting from one’s own actions) it is either reborn as another personality or merges with the Ultimate Spiritual Reality (GOD); which is the source and destination of our spiritual being.  According to Nanak, just as the Physical Universe is the origin and destiny of our body, so is God the Spiritual Universe, source and goal of our individual spirit (soul), God is envisaged by Nanak as the Spiritual Universe, Who created the Physical Universe.  According to Nanak, God himself is as vast and infinite as the physical universe.  It is that Spiritual Infinite is which he sees God, the Spiritual Reality.

 Man is a miniature specimen of Physical and Spiritual Universes.  Components of this body become dust with that of Physical Universe and the soul is identified with that of Spiritual Universe.  The macrocosm is reflected in the microcosm of the human being.  Guru Nanak says:

 

“Such is the divine play of the Creator that

He has reflected that whole cosmos in the human body.”

 

GOD:

 

“You are the Creator of all.

You give the soul, the body and life.

We are meritless: without virtue.

Bless us, O Merciful Lord.”

 

The divinity of love and truth, which we identify with God, is the Lord described by Nanak as Ultimate Spiritual Reality and is different from any godhead in the likeness of a human or nay other form.

 

The persistent survival of a number of competing religions all claiming the privilege of being the sole recipients of God’s incarnation or his final revelation is a challenge to all the competing claims alike, since if such a privilege were ever granted by God, it would need to be exclusive.  Only one of these absolute claims can be valid, if there is any validity in any one of them.  Thus, who is to judge between the conflicting claims of Mohammed as the last of The Prophets, Jesus or Krishna as the sole incarnations of God, or Moses as the Greatest Prophet?  In each case the claim is Exclusive, Unique and Final.  It is in fact extremely difficult to imagine that a God who governs the whole infinite universe would bestow His Grace of self revelation (which is unique and final in each case), on a certain tribe at a certain time on the particular part of our satellite (Earth) of an insignificant galaxy.  While in space dimensions, our Earth is only a tiny planet and in time dimensions its life is still many more millions of years, the so-called Unique and Final claim or revelation already happens to be a matter of the past.

 

On the other hand, contrary to the above dogmas and claims of exclusive revelations from God, Nanak defined God as a Supreme Spirit, Ultimate Spiritual Reality or Spiritual Universe and he rejected the idea of exclusiveness and uniqueness of nay prophets, gods, race or religion.  Although Nanak himself was in no way less divine than any of them, yet he never asserted his divinity and not having made any claims of any kind, he stands unique among all above divine personalities.

 

His definition of God and the Universe has been unparalleled in Eastern Mysticism.  The following are only a few passages from his poems on his subject, which are self-explanatory.

 

“There is but One God,

The Eternal All-pervading Divine Spirit,

The Creator, the Supreme Being, The Omnipotent,

Without fear, without enmity,

Immortal Reality,

Unborn,[4][4] Self-Existent.

True in the timeless beginning,

True in the past infinity of ages,

Even now, He is the Truth,

And, forever He shall be the Truth Eternal.”

 

None can describe his bounties: none can comprehend His infinity.  Guru Nanak writes, “Just as rivers cannot size up the ocean, in the same way man cannot assess God’s greatness.”

 

“He crates the universe and then reveals Himself

To us and in us, He made Himself manifest.”

 

KARMA AND RE-BIRTH:

 

"The mortal remains,

Subject to pain and pleasure,

Comes and goes again."

 

Guru Nanak firmly believed in ancient Indian doctrine of Karma and rebirth but he adopted a simpler way of bringing an end to the transmigration of the soul.  For a Brahmin caste, the way salvation is the way of knowledge, which deprived the illiterate and ignorant man of the opportunity of Jiwan Mukti (Salvation).  According to Nanak, the cardinal feature for bringing an end to the cycle of rebirth is to live a life of single-minded devotion for the Supreme Being, while leading the life of humility and truthful living.  Thus in Sikhism, the door to salvation is left wide open, even for man of the lowest intellect.

 

As in other Indian religions, good Karma also plays an important role in Sikhism, but there is no room for penance's or asceticism.  Not celibacy but a way of household life (grahsta) is considered more appropriate and natural in Sikhism.  Asceticism or Celibacy was not considered an aid to spiritual fulfillment or holiness.  Nanak did not accept complete dependence on Karma.  Man is not a mere mechanism of instincts.  The spirit in him can triumph over the automatic forces that may enslave him.  He believed that bad Karma for last life could be considerably erased in this life by seeking God's Grace and practicing good deeds.  This departure from the traditional Hindu dependence on the Karmic destiny, has brought greater confidence and optimism among the Sikhs, giving them the courage to alter things that should be altered and the serenity to accept the facts of life that can not be altered.

 

Grace plays an important role in Sikh way of salvation.  No matter how good a Sikh's actions (Karma) may be, he still seeks grace from God to be able to be one with Him.  E.g. Man may labor to sow the seed and water the plant, but he cannot prevent its destruction by natural calamities, like floods etc.  Hence the need for seeking God's Grace even after doing good Karma.

 

 

"I crave not for kingdom of any kind.

My soul longs for the love of Your Lotus-feet.

There are others like Brahma, Shiva,

Siddhas, Munis and Indra,

But I long for the Lord's Grace only. 

Taking me into His embrace,

The Compassionate wiped off all my sins."

 

According to Nanak, grace is a reciprocal gift in response to man's love of God.  A Sikh even seeks Grace to enable him to lead a humble life of devotion and truthful living.  Grace of God comes easily to those who avoid sinning, but not to deliberate sinners.  While sin is an obstacle to progress, yet at its strongest it cannot resist the power of goodness and truth.  For Nanak "to entertain truth within the heart is the essence of virtue; all other worship is hypocrisy."

 

Truth has always been greatly valued in Indian Philosophy since ancient times.  Nanak, however, went a step further and proclaimed, "Truth is above everything, yet higher than truth is truthful living."

 

By acknowledging the 'original sin' in human nature, the Christian theology implies that man cannot be the highest spiritual Presence in or behind the universe.  This is quite contrary to Nanak's theory, to whom life **** is not sinful in its origin.  Having emanated from its pure source (Divine Spirit) it remains pure in its essence.

 

MEDITATION:

 

"Meditation on the Name

Quenches thirst of the Soul.

Let us drink together

The Nectar treasure of the Lord's Name."

 

Nanak made an important contribution to the ancient Yoga Philosophy.  He removed the mystery from meditation and asserted its simplicity.  According

To him meditation is entirely a mental process and does not depend at all on the practicing of rigorous yoga postures, austerities or renunciation of active life.  He held that meditation leads one to a state of equanimity and tranquility and defined meditation[5][5] as the practicing of the presence of God by keeping him ever in mind with love and devotion and dwelling on His excellence.

 

"I seek only one bounty from my Lord.

To bless me with meditation on the Name

And then all my tasks would be fulfilled.

May I serve God in my childhood and contemplate

On Him in my youth and old age."

 

According to Nanak, meditation should be exclusively on Omnipotent and Immortal Divine Spirit, beyond or behind the Universe, which is His creation.

 

God being the Supreme Spirit, is to be worshipped in spirit and not in stone, idols or pictures.  True meditation is an indispensable aid to attaining the highest degree of spiritual intensity.  On the other hand, meditation is achieved more easily and successfully by the soul possessed of the incomparable virtues of truth, love and humility.

 

"In the garden of the soul

Plant the seed of the word (Truth)

Water the soil with love and humility

And reap the fruits of divinity."

 

Guru Nanak has mentioned five stages of spiritual growth in his compositions.  The first stage is the region of duty,  'Dharam Khand", where man's actions are responsible for the consequences.  Those who carry out their duties sincerely and honestly enter the second region, the region of knowledge, 'Gian Khand'.  Here the devotee obtains knowledge of God and the universe.  He knows his own limitations and the omnipotence of God and the vastness of his creation.  Then he enters the third stage, the region of effort, 'Saram Khand', where his mind and understanding are purified.  Such efforts lead him to the next region, the region of grace, 'Karam Khand".  Here the selfless devotee acquires divine grace and receives spiritual power.  With the grace of God he enters the next stage, the region of truth, 'Sach Khand", the stage of ultimate spiritual reality, behind and beyond the phenomena of the Universe, where God and man become one and the same.  Such is the progress of man from the worldly plane to the spiritual plane.

 

 

RELIGION:

 

"When a man is in extreme difficulty

And none to offer him any help,

When he has lost all support and hope,

Let him remember the Supreme Lord

Let him remember the Supreme Lord

And no harm shall come to him.

The Lord is the strength of the weak."

 

Religion in its true sense is a search for the ultimate spiritual principle in the universe and trying to put oneself in harmony with it.

 

To Nanak the true purpose of a religion was to spread the spiritual principles and truths among as many souls as it can reach, to enable them to fulfil the true goal of God.  According to him man's true end is to glorify God and to be at one with Him forever.

 

In the Lord's love is the spiritual vision and through the spiritual vision is the Lord comprehended.  According to Nanak, God is a symbol of love and ocean of mercy.  One who seeks it from Him receives fulfillment.

 

 

"You are my Benevolent Lord, and Father

Every moment you sustain me,

For I am your child.

You destroy millions of my sins

And instruct me in several ways.

I seek your protection.

You are my comforting friend."

 

Nanak's ethics of truthful living were directed towards enlightenment rather than redemption.  To him not salvation but enlightenment was of primary importance.  There can be no salvation without enlightenment.  Enlightenment leads to spiritualism, which inspires man to dedicating his life to the service of humanity.  Such were the universally applicable ethics of truth and dedication, which Nanak strove to promote as true religion among mankind.

 

Guru Nanak travelled extensively, carrying his message of Truth, Love Peace, Humility, and Service.  Submission to the Divine Will leads to contentment.  A true devotee accepts all that comes to him with gratitude and joy.  Without contentment it is impossible to acquire peace of mind.  True happiness comes to a contended mind.  This was the essence of Nanak's religion.

 

In the following two hymns he summarizes his universal teachings and reflects his views on the prevailing practices of two major religions, Hindus and Muslims, advising them how to be truly religious within their own religions. 

 

TO HINDUS:

 

"Not the Yogi's garb and ashes,

Not the shaven head,

Not long prayers,

Not recitations and torturing,

Not the ascetic way,

But life of truth and love,

Amid the world's temptations,

Is the secret of spiritual life."

 

TO MUSLIMS:

 

"Speaking the Truth is the real Fast,

Remaining contended is true Pilgrimage,

Meditation is the true Ablution,

Compassion is the true Worship,

Humility is the real Rosary."

 

His was perhaps the only religion that was devoid of dogmas and doctrines.  Even though Islam and Christianity both believe in Oneness of God, yet a Christian must believe that in addition to God there exists the Son and the Holy Ghost and the doctrine that faith in Jesus alone can save one.  In Islam one must believe that Mohammed was the last of the Prophets from God and only one can be saved who puts faith in Him, in addition to the observation of fasts and five prayers.

 

Hinduism consists of various forms of worship of gods and goddesses, most of them in human forms.  Bhagwad Gita, the most widely revered of Hindu scriptures emphasizes that Krishna born as a human being is the God, Creator of the Universe. 

Guru Nanak's universally applicable spiritual teachings of service, humility, meditation and truthful living, eventually took shape of a religion, known as Sikhism (Sikh means to 'learn').  Ten subsequent Gurus carried Nanak's message forward.  The saying and hymns of the Gurus were incorporated into a holy book called Guru Granth, which forms the scripture of Sikh religion and is considered the Eleventh Guru for Sikhs.  Sikh scriptures 'Guru Granth' happens to be unique in the following aspects:

1.      It is totally free from any claims and dogmas.

2.      It was written during the life of the Gurus, and hence is authentic.  The devotees wrote most other religious scriptures long after the death of their masters.  Rishi Vyas wrote Bhagwad Gita at a 1000 years after Krishna.

3.      It also incorporates devotional hymns of saints of other religions, such as Hinduism and Islam.  As such it can be regarded as a universal scripture.

4.      The entire Guru Granth is composed in music and poetry.  A directive of its musical pattern and rhythm precedes every hymn.  The Gurus have used 31 Ragas of Indian Classical music.

The passages of poetry quoted in this book are only a very small part of Nanak’s spiritual treasure, which is presented, in its original form in the holy book – Guru Granth.  Out of total 5894 hymns of the scripture, Guru Granth’s contribution is 974, composed in 19 Ragas (musical modes).  Guru Granth shows the harmony between Truth and music.  The Gurus realized the power of music on man’s mind and soul.  The Devotional singing of sacred hymns is no less than the celestial melody.

Guru Nanak’s poetry is valuable both for its sublime content and literary excellence.  It shows an admirable use of figures of speech. 

Imagery is used to simplify the subtle thoughts and profound concepts.  The images have been taken from every-day life and common occurrences.

The dominant themes of his poetry are Truth, Harmony and Wisdom, which are seasoned with the Divine Spirit.  It is a work of Divine inspiration.  One who reads his devotional hymns is undoubtedly stirred to the depths by the spirit, which brings the reader face to face with this Dazzling, Eternal and All-pervading Reality.

Guru Nanak’s teachings of love, humility and truthful living offer the entire human race the serenity that gives the spiritual strength to face the sufferings of this world, not by running away from life but accepting it with the calmness of love and devotion.  He preached a religion for which men could live, a religion that would illuminate human life, a religion of love, service and sacrifice.  Nanak’s vision of life embraced all countries and all races and all times[H1][H1][6][6]. 



SIR RADHAKRISHNAN’S COMMENTS:

Sir S. Radhakrishnan (Ex-President of India) writes as follows in the UNESCO publication of Guru Granth referred too earlier:

  • Nanak is the light-bearer to mankind, a messenger of the timeless.

  • At a time when men were conscious of failure, Nanak appeared to renovate the spirit of religion and humanity.

  • The aim of liberation is not to escape from the world of space and time but to be enlightened, wherever we may be.

  • Nanak tried to build a nation of self-respecting men and women, devoted to God and their leaders, filled with a sense of equality and brotherhood for all.

  • God is universal.  He is not the God of this race or that nation.  He is the God of all human beings.  They are all-equal in His sight and can approach Him directly.  We must, therefore, have regard for other peoples and other religions. 

When Akita Randhava asked Guru Nana about ahimsa (non-violence), Nanak replied:

1.      Do not wish evil for anyone.  This is the ahimsa of thought.

2.      Do not speak harshly of anyone, This is the ahimsa of speech.

3.      Do not obstruct anyone’s work.  This is the ahimsa of action.

4.      If a man speaks ill of you, forgive him.

5.      Practice physical, mental and spiritual endurance.

6.      Help the suffering, even at the cost of your life.

We should aim to escape from the prison of our self-hood and not to escape from the body, which is the temple of God.  Until we reach the end we will have other lives to pass through.  No failure is final.  An eventual awakening for all is certain.

APPRAISALS:

“The Hymns of Guru Granth are an expression of man’s loneliness, his aspirations, his longings, his cry to God and his Hunger for communication with that Being.  I have studied the scriptures of other great religions, but I do not find elsewhere the same power of appeal to the heart and mind as I find in Adi Granth.  It speaks to me of life and death; of time and eternity; of the temporal human body and its needs; of the mystic human soul and its longing to be fulfilled; of God and the indissoluble bond between him.”

                                                                                                Miss Pearl S. Buck

(Review of Guru Granth)

“ …Guru Granth is part of mankind’s common spiritual treasure.  It is important that is should be brought within the direct reach of as many people as possible …In this coming religious debate, Nanak’s Sikh religion and its scriptures, Guru Granth will have something special of value to say to the rest of the world…For Nanak, the fundamental truth was that for a human being the approach to God lies through self-abnegation.”

Prof. Arnold Toynbee

‘Sacred Writings of the Sikhs’

(A UNESCO Publication)

 

“We find in Guru Granth a wide range of mystical emotion, intimate expressions of the personal realization of God and rapturous hymns of divine love.

The barriers of seas and mountains will give way before the call of eternal truth which is set forth with a freshness of feeling and fervor of devotion in the Guru Granth.”

Sir S. Radhakrishnan

(Ex-President of India)

“Guru Nanak’s poetry enlightens all those who cherish Spiritual Reality and reminds those of other faiths of precious treasures they can gather for their own soul.”

Lord Sorensen

(Chairman of World Congress of Faiths)

“India was once again blessed by God with Nanak, possessed of all attributes of a prophet, a complete and perfect human being.  Nanak’s appearance in the World was no less than that of Prophet Abraham 5000 years ago.” 

Mohamed Iqbal

(The greatest poet of Pakistan)

Guru Nanak was great Poet, Philosopher and Saint.  His teachings are of Universal application and his message of love service and sacrifice will continue to inspire coming generations. 

Lord Mountbatten

From his speech in London at the

500th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak.

 

 

 





[1][1] Rig Veda, X90.

[2][2] Bhagwad Gita . II

 

[3][3] All the passages of poetry and quotes in this book are only a fraction of the original work of Guru Nanak, written in a holy book known as Guru Granth, which represents his colossal spiritual  thought.

* There are cases where between death and rebirth, some souls may wander for some indefinite periods depending upon there past actions (Karma).  In this connection, there have been known incidents of malpractice's or strange and unexplained occurrence influenced by the so-called spiritualists - I would prefer to call many of such feats as witchcraft or sorcery.  These so -called 'miracle worker', (some of them practicing the cult of Tantric Yoga) have utilized their knowledge and energy in an attempt to develop occult powers, usually for enslaving wandering or strayed spirits in order to motivate them to do certain tasks or get some information, by devious methods including that of fortune-telling.  Many of their admirers are amazed by such feats of spirit-communication and ofter call them miracles.  Sometimes, these spiritualists seek help of such enslaved spirits for implementing dangerous tasks or wicked transgression to impress others or to frighten them into subjection.  The author feels very strongly that association with such persons is likely to prove harmful, nay, dangerous, and may even cause mental instability.

[4][4] The necessary implication of the above attributes of God, particularly the one that he is not subject to birth and death is, that according to Guru Nanak, there can be no incarnation of God and the Hindu theory that God appears in the world every now and then in the garb of a human being, with a view of helping and guiding His creatures, is not tenable.

[5][5] Nanak's 'Mantra' for meditation was composed of three words, EKONKAR - One Eternal Divine Spirit; SATNAM - The Ultimate Truth; WAHEGURU - The Wonderful Lord.

 

[6][6] From the book by same title published in 1979 by Guru Nanak Foundation (U.K.) 88 Mollison Way, Edgware, Middlesex, HA85QW.


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