Six schools of philosophy mentioned in SGGS Jee

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Six schools of philosophy mentioned in SGGS Jee

Postby Biriabc » Sun Sep 01, 2013 5:54 am

Waheguru Jee Kaa Khalsa
Waheguru Jee kee Fateh

While reading page 98 of SGGS Jee there was a reference to the six schools of philosophy in ancient India. Not knowing the six schools I looked the information up. This may be of some interest to the readers:

ਖਟੁ ਸਾਸਤ ਬਿਚਰਤ ਮੁਖਿ ਗਿਆਨਾ ॥
Kẖat sāsaṯ bicẖraṯ mukẖ gi▫ānā.
ਖਟੁ = ਛੇ। ਖਟੁ ਸਾਸਤ = {ਸਾਂਖ, ਨਿਆਇ, ਵੈਸ਼ੇਸ਼ਿਕ, ਮੀਮਾਂਸਾ, ਯੋਗ, ਵੇਦਾਂਤ}
Six Schools of philosophy
There are six philosophical schools in Hinduism based on the Astika [“it exists”] tradition of the Vedas. They are:
1] Nyaya: [School of Logic] Founded by sage Gautama in 2nd century BCE. It is also at times called Science of Debate or Science of Discussion
2] Vaisheshika : Founded by Sage Kanada around 2nd century BCE. It espouses a form of atomism and postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms [paramanus] controlled by the will of the supreme god Brahma
3] Samkhya: Founded by sage Kapila around 200CE. Samkhya denies the final cause or purpose of Ishvara (God). Samkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities; Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (phenomenal realm of matter).
4] Yoga: Though several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization sites, dating to the mid-3rd millennium BCE, depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose, sage Patanali’s text on the subject around 2nd century BCE has become the authority on the subject. He defines yoga as "the stilling of the changing states of the mind” or “union with the divine”. Later on Hatha yoga became more popular with development of the asanas or body postures that people now associate the word yoga with.
5] Mimamsa: Mimamsa means “investigation” in sanskrit. Mimamsa is strongly concerned with investigation into the history and origins of text, and consequently gave rise to the study of written historical sources [vedas] and the philosophy of language. The foundation text for Mimamsa Shastra was written by sage Jaimani [3rd century BCE] and dealt with doctrines of ritual practice [karma] and religious duty [dharma] as described in the Vedas
6] Vedanta: Vedanta is not restricted or confined to one book and there is no single source for Vedantic philosophy. It describes a group of philosophical traditions concerned with the self-realization by which one understands the ultimate nature of reality (Brahma)

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Re: Six schools of philosophy mentioned in SGGS Jee

Postby Guest » Mon Aug 21, 2017 4:58 am

Indian philosophy is divided in two parts Astika(Vedic Dharma) and Nastika(Jain & Buddha Dhamma).Āstika has been defined in one of three ways; as those who accept the (Pramana)epistemic authority of the Vedas, as those who accept the existence of ātman, or as those who accept the existence of Ishvara.[6][7] In contrast, nāstika are those who deny the respective definitions of āstika.
Six School of philosophy mentioned in SGGS jee or ṣaḍdarśanas (also spelled Sad Darshan) consider Vedas as a reliable source of knowledge and an authoritative source.[18] These are the Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimāṃsā and Vedanta schools of Hinduism, and they are classified as the āstika schools:

Nyāyá, the school of logic
Vaiśeṣika, the atomist school
Sāṃkhya, the enumeration school
Yoga, the school of Patañjali (which assumes the metaphysics of Sāṃkhya)
Purva Mimāṃsā, the tradition of Vedic exegesis
Vedanta or Uttara Mimāṃsā, the Upaniṣadic tradition.
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